Content Vol. III

The Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand
Vol. III, 5 December 2011
ISSN 1906-7879

Editor’s Note

The theme of this issue of the Journal is Harmony in Cultural Diversity. It is an accepted fact that each culture has its own characteristics due to many factors such as the religious belief, environment, climate. As one individual is different from another but can live in harmony with other individuals, it is possible that many cultural units can live in harmony in a community, society, nation and the world. It is up to human beings to choose between harmony and conflict. The right choice will bring peace while the wrong choice will cause wars and casualties. If we believe that understanding will bring sympathy and love, that knowledge will widen our horizon and improve the quality of life, essays and articles in this issue of the Journal of the Royal Institute may contribute some degree of benefit to the readers.

As the Institute is composed of three academies : Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, Academy of Science and Academy of Arts, there are works from all the three academies. These works may interest readers from various fields of knowledge, from social sciences, language and literature, to science and medicine. It is hoped that the interdisciplinary feature of the journal will promote understanding and colaborations between experts of various disciplines. In the age of globalization, the need to colaborate and look further than one’s own field is quite urgent. Harmony in cultural diversity is also necessary in any society so that peace and understanding among global beings can be achieved and maintained.

As this issue of the Journal is planned for the celebration of the auspicious occasion of His Majesty the King’s 7th Cycle Birthday Anniversary, December 5, 2011, two poems are published to wish Him all the best, on behalf of the Editorial Board and the Thai people.

Srisurang Poolthupya
Editor, Fellow of the Royal Institute


Professor Dr. Panya Borisutdhi, FRI.
President of the Royal Institute of Thailand


Professor Srisurang Poolthupya, FRI.

Deputy Editor

Professor Dr. Somboon Suksamran, FRI.

Language Editors

Khunying Finola Chatamra
Professor Dr. Robert Exell

Editorial Board

Associate Professor Dr. Kris Chatamra, FRI.
Professor Dr. Likhit Dhiravegin, FRI.
Professor Dr. Prakong Nimmanahaeminda, FRI.
Dr. Sobha Chupikulchai Spielmann, FRI.
Associate Professor Malithat Promathatavedi, AFRI.
Professor Dr. Pornsan Watanangura, AFRI.
Professor Dr. Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, AFRI.
Professor Dr. Sawasd Tantaratana, AFRI.
Professor Dr. Suthat Yoksan, AFRI.
Ms Kanokwalee Chuchaiya, Secretary-General
Ms.Saengchant Sansupa, Director of Moral and Political Sciences Division
Dr. Cholthicha Sudmuk, Literary Arts Officer
Ms. Rattikal Sriamphai, Literary Arts Officer
Ms. Itsariya Lauhatirananda, Literary Arts Officer

Cover Design
Mr.Wisit Pincanngern

Long Live His Majesty the King

May the sacred power of the Triple Gem
And the might of every celestial being
Protect His Majesty from all afflictions
So that He may be the longest reigning
Monarch in Thailand and the world.
May He remain the Golden Bodhi tree
Of peace and love for the Thai people
In this fair and fertile Land of the Free.

Professor Emeritus Srisurang Poolthupya

The Light of the Land

King Bhumibol, greatest of Kings!
Thy subjects join in lauding thee
And wishing thee the best of things,
To mark thy Seventh Cycle Jubilee.
‘Strength of the Land’ thy name doth mean,
Thou givest life and hope to all,
Countless benefits can be seen
From thy projects big and small.
Hill tribe people up in the North
New methods of crop growing learn.
Abundant produce they bring forth,
And so more income they do earn.
In arid lands where droughts prevail,
Thou providest the Royal Rain.
So farms and soil that used to fail
Could have their fertility again.
When storms and floods ravage people,
Like a saviour thou risest to their aid.
Kaem Ling, dams, and weirs are ample
Assistance that they are paid.
Grateful for thy benevolence,
The populace pledge to emulate thee.
Earning but enough for subsistence,
Thais will be self-sufficient and free.
Hard it is not to understand
Why people revere thee ever.
Thou who art the light of the land,
May thy glory last forever!

Associate Professor Malithat Promathatavedi